Thursday, March 19, 2020

Thermal Properties of Glass Transition

Thermal Properties of Glass Transition Fiber reinforced polymer composites are often used as structural components that are exposed to extremely high or low heats. These applications include: Automotive engine componentsAerospace and military productsElectronic and circuit board componentsOil and gas equipment The thermal performance of an FRP composite will be a direct result of the resin matrix and the curing process. Isophthalic, vinyl ester, and epoxy resins generally have very good thermal performance properties. While orthophthalic resins most often exhibit poor thermal performance properties. Additionally, the same resin can have vastly different properties, depending on the curing process, curing temperature, and time cured. For example, many epoxy resins require a post-cure to help reach the highest thermal performance characteristics. A post-cure is the method of adding temperature for a duration of time to a composite after the resin matrix has already cured through the thermosetting chemical reaction. A post cure can help align and organize the polymer molecules, further increasing structural and thermal properties. Tg - The Glass Transition Temperature FRP composites can be used in structural applications that require elevated temperatures, however, at higher temperatures, the composite can lose modulus properties. Meaning, the polymer can soften and become less stiff. The loss of modulus is gradual at lower temperatures, however, each polymer resin matrix will have a temperature that when reached, the composite will transition from a glassy state to a rubbery state. This transition is called the glass transition temperature or Tg. (Commonly referred to in conversation as T sub g). When designing a composite for a structural application, it is important to make sure the FRP composites Tg will be higher than the temperature it might ever be exposed to. Even in non-structural applications, the Tg is important as the composite can change cosmetically if the Tg is exceeded. Tg is most commonly measured using two different methods: DSC - Differential Scanning Calorimetry This is a chemical analysis which detects energy absorption. A polymer requires a certain amount of energy to transition states, much like water requires a certain temperature to transition to steam. DMA - Dynamic Mechanical Analysis This method physically measures stiffness as heat is applied, when a rapid decrease in modulus properties occurs, the Tg has been reached. Although both methods of testing the Tg of a polymer composite are accurate, it is important to use the same method when comparing one composite or polymer matrix to another. This reduces variables and provides a more accurate comparison.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How Solar Flares Work and the Risks They Pose

How Solar Flares Work and the Risks They Pose A sudden flash of brightness on the Suns surface is called a solar flare. If the effect is seen on a star besides the Sun, the phenomenon is called a stellar flare. A stellar or solar flare releases a vast amount of energy, typically on the order of  1 Ãâ€" 1025  joules, over a broad spectrum of wavelengths and particles. This amount of energy is comparable to the explosion of 1 billion megatons of TNT or ten million volcanic eruptions. In addition to light, a solar flare may eject atoms, electrons, and ions into space in what is called a coronal mass ejection. When particles are released by the Sun, they are able to reach Earth within a day or two. Fortunately, the mass may be ejected outward in any direction, so the Earth isnt always affected. Unfortunately, scientists arent able to forecast flares, only give a warning when one has occurred. The most powerful solar flare was the first one that was observed. The event occurred on September 1, 1859, and is called the Solar Storm of 1859 or the Carrington Event. It was reported independently by astronomer Richard Carrington and Richard Hodgson. This flare was visible to the naked eye, set telegraph systems aflame, and produced auroras all the way down to Hawaii and Cuba. While scientists at the time didnt have the ability to measure the strength of the solar flare, modern scientists were able to reconstruct the event based on nitrate and the isotope beryllium-10 produced from the radiation. Essentially, evidence of the flare was preserved in ice in Greenland. How  a Solar Flare Works Like planets, stars consists of multiple layers. In the case of a solar flare, all layers of the Suns atmosphere are affected. In other words, energy is released from the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. Flares tend to occur near sunspots, which are regions of intense magnetic fields. These fields link the atmosphere of the Sun to its interior. Flares are believed to result from a process called magnetic reconnection, when loops of magnetic force break apart, rejoin  and release energy. When magnetic energy is suddenly released by the corona (suddenly meaning over a matter of minutes), light and particles are accelerated into space. The source of the released matter appears to be material from the unconnected helical magnetic field, however, scientists havent completely worked out how flares work and why there are sometimes more released particles than the amount within a coronal loop. Plasma in the affected area reaches temperatures in the order of tens of million Kelvin, wh ich is nearly as hot as the Suns core. The electrons, protons, and ions are accelerated by the intense energy to nearly the speed of light. Electromagnetic radiation covers the entire spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves. The energy released in the visible part of the spectrum makes some solar flares observable to the naked eye, but most of the energy is outside the visible range, so flares are observed using scientific instrumentation. Whether or not a solar flare is accompanied by a coronal mass ejection is not readily predictable. Solar flares may also release a flare spray, which involves an ejection of material that is faster than a solar prominence. Particles released from a flare spray may attain a velocity of 20 to 200 kilometers per second (kps). To put this into perspective, the speed of light is 299.7 kps! How Often Do Solar Flares Occur? Smaller solar flares occur more often than large ones. The frequency of any flare occurring depends on the activity of the Sun. Following the 11-year solar cycle, there may be several flares per day during an active part of the cycle, compared with fewer than one per week during a quiet phase. During peak activity, there may be 20 flares a day and over 100 per week. How Solar Flares Are Classified An earlier method of solar flare classification was based on the intensity of  the  HÃŽ ±Ã‚  line of the solar spectrum. The modern classification system categorizes flares according to their peak flux of 100 to 800 picometer X-rays, as observed by the GOES spacecraft that orbit the Earth. Classification Peak Flux (Watts per square meter) A 10−7 B 10−7 – 10−6 C 10−6 – 10−5 M 10−5 – 10−4 X 10−4 Each category is further ranked on a linear scale, such that an X2 flare is twice as potent as an X1 flare. Ordinary Risks From Solar Flares Solar flares produce what is called solar weather on Earth. The solar wind impacts the magnetosphere of the Earth, producing aurora borealis and australis, and presenting a radiation risk to satellites, spacecraft, and astronauts. Most of the risk is to objects in low Earth orbit, but coronal mass ejections from solar flares can knock out power systems on Earth and completely disable satellites. If satellites did come down,  cell phones and GPS systems would be without service. The ultraviolet light and x-rays released by a flare disrupt long-range radio and likely increase the risk of sunburn and cancer. Could a Solar Flare Destroy the Earth? In a word: yes. While the planet itself would survive an encounter with a superflare, the atmosphere could be bombarded with radiation and all life could be obliterated. Scientists have observed the release of superflares from other stars up to 10,000 times more powerful than a typical solar flare. While most of these flares occur in stars that have more powerful magnetic fields than our Sun, about 10% of the time the star is comparable to or weaker than the Sun. From studying tree rings, researchers believe Earth has experienced two small superflares- one in 773 C.E. and another in 993 C.E. Its possible we can expect a superflare about once a millennium. The chance of an extinction level superflare is unknown. Even normal flares can have devastating consequences. NASA revealed Earth narrowly missed a catastrophic solar flare on July 23, 2012. If the flare had occurred just a week earlier, when it was pointed directly at us, society would have been knocked back to the Dark Ages. The intense radiation would have disabled electrical grids, communication, and GPS on a global scale. How likely is such an event in the future? Physicist Pete Rile calculates the odds of a disruptive solar flare is 12% per 10 years. How to Predict Solar Flares At present, scientists cannot predict a solar flare with any degree of accuracy. However, high sunspot activity is associated with an increased chance of flare production. Observation of sunspots, particularly the type called delta spots, is used to calculate the probability of a flare occurring and how strong it will be. If a strong flare (M or X class) is predicted, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issues a forecast/warning. Usually, the warning allows for 1-2 days of preparation. If a solar flare and coronal mass ejection occur, the severity of the flares impact on Earth depends on the type of particles released and how directly the flare faces the Earth. Sources Big Sunspot 1520 Releases X1.4 Class Flare With Earth-Directed CME. NASA. July 12, 2012.Description of a Singular Appearance seen in the Sun on September 1, 1859, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, v20, pp13, 1859.Karoff, Christoffer. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars. Nature Communications volume 7, Mads Faurschou Knudsen, Peter De Cat, et al., Article number: 11058, March 24, 2016.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Proposal for Exec Hotels for Business Improvement Essay

Proposal for Exec Hotels for Business Improvement - Essay Example However, the costs associated with a new focus on tourism business are currently beyond the company’s capabilities. It has been determined that renewed local marketing is the best methodology to ensure revenue growth outside of the London centre of operations. 2. The business case Occupancy rates at hotels in Europe have seen stability in the last few years, with an average rate of 63 percent in London (Carlson Wagonlit, 2011). However, many European capitals are being hit hard currently with the economic global downturn, therefore the business should focus on its local business and presence (brand reputation) in the United Kingdom rather than expanding abroad. The company staff and executive leadership team are currently well-versed in local UK cultures, values and systems and by remaining in the UK for expansion, it will avoid the high costs of training and human resources restructuring for other European countries. The goal is to improve occupancy rates during the weekend where business is the most incapacitated, however the challenge to Exec Hotels is ensuring a method to fill weekend rooms without focusing on the new tourism market. This can be accomplished by staying true to the current values and operational know-how that currently exists in the UK marketplace. 3. The methodology for revenue improvements Competitive advantage for medium-sized hotels lays specifically in market innovation practices (Lin & Wu, 2008).

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Pricing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Pricing - Essay Example Center of discussion in this paper is pricing that can be approached at three distinct levels such as industry level, market level, and transaction level. Industry level pricing process considers overall economics of the industry including changes in customer needs and supplier prices. Zuponcic states that Market level pricing takes into account market trends and competitors’ strategies; whereas, transaction level pricing specifically focuses on the discounts management. Modern marketers practice a range of pricing strategies mainly including cost plus pricing, skimming pricing, market oriented pricing, penetration pricing, premium pricing, price leadership, target pricing, absorption pricing, and value based pricing. A set of economic factors is to be considered before recommending a pricing strategy for a particular product since pricing is the most effective profit lever. As Sloman points out, it is necessary to evaluate market demand and price elasticity of the product. Fo r instance, if there is high market demand for a product, the marketer can fix a relatively higher price whereas he will be forced to lower product prices when market demand declines. Some products including jewelleries and automobiles are very sensitive to price; and hence, even a small increase in price will lead to a noticeable decline in their market demand. As Clausen indicates, economic theories do not encourage the setting of higher prices for such price sensitive products. In addition, production costs and expected profit margin have to be analyzed while choosing a pricing strategy.... In addition, production costs and expected profit margin have to be analyzed while choosing a pricing strategy (ibid). When a product’s cost of production is high, firms generally charge higher prices in order to ensure adequate return on the huge investments. In the view of Senior (1852, p. 102), organizations need to consider huge profit margins if the cost production is high and fix a low profit margin if production costs incurred are near to the ground. Shaw (2001, pp.58-59) points out that market structure also plays a crucial role in ensuring successful pricing since market demand is the key driver behind product movement. To illustrate, a skimming pricing policy would probably fail to attract customers in a market where competition is intense, because a set of other product choices are available to customers. Therefore, it is better to adopt a cost plus pricing policy or penetration pricing policy while operating in a highly competitive market environment. Similarly, pr ice discrimination strategy would be advisable in a market which contains diverse population. This strategy seems to be potential for mobile phone industry, particularly to Aslan. According to George, Joll, and Lynk (1992, pp.181-185), in an oligopolistic market environment, a small number of sellers dominate the market; and hence economic theories advise firms to compete in such market segments with relatively low prices and high production. If a marketer increases his product prices in an oligopolistic market environment, customers will certainly switch their demand to other sellers who market their products more affordably. Marketers must give specific focus on the pricing of simple configurable products. Economic approaches direct that price

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Theories Of Drunvalo Melchizadek And Jungian Biology Essay

Theories Of Drunvalo Melchizadek And Jungian Biology Essay In genetics, it is understood that humans have 44 chromosomes (22 pairs), plus 2 sex chromosomes that determine gender. That is scientific fact. Heres where it gets tricky. Suppose one has more or less than 44? Indeed, it can happen; some genetic disorders are caused by this. But what affect could it have not simply on the human body, but on the human consciousness? From the metaphysicist himself, Drunvalo Melchizadek: There are three totally different kinds of humans on the Earth, meaning that they perceive the One reality in three different ways, interpreted differently. The first kind of human has a chromosome composition of 42+2. They comprise a unity consciousness that does not see anything outside themselves as being separate from themselves. To them, there is only one energy one life, one beingness that moves everywhere. Anything happening anywhere is within them, as well. They are like cells in the body. They are all connected to a single consciousness that moves through all of them. These are the aboriginals in Australia. There might be a few African tribes left like this. Then, there is our level, comprising 44+2 chromosomes. We are a disharmonic level of consciousness that is used as a steppingstone from the 42+2 level to the next level, 46+2. We are dangerous to both ourselves and nature, but we are necessaryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦These two additional chromosomes change everything (Melchizedek ). In short, those lacking a pair of chromosomes (compared to normal humans) perceive all reality and being as one. This falls into line quite well with the spiritual beliefs of the Aborigines in particular (however, it must be pointed out that no group of people today currently possess the requisite 42 chromosomes). In metaphor, reality is one giant landmass with no divisions, no individuals. Those with the 44 chromosomes (in short, us), are unstable. Our level of evolution is simply a building block to 46. We have individual lives, but now fail to ever come together. In essence, each reality is a completely isolated island from one another. Building from this, it could be reasoned that our pain, suffering, ignorance, apathy and general bad qualities stem from our chromosomal imbalance. Therefore, the only way to truly rid ourselves of these is by moving on. Finally, to 46; the next step in human evolution. According to Melchizadeks theories, it is at this point that we come together as individual to make one, each separate, but unified. In his words again: The main change will be a shift to the unity consciousness. Every cell in your body has its own consciousness and memory. You, the higher being that occupies your body, make the millions of different consciousnesses in your body work together as one being. How does this relate to this [new evolution]? Think of yourself as a cell and the grid as the higher being. We will still have individual consciousness, but will be united in the form of a higher being in order to work as one entity (Melchizedek). In the perspective of the Christian religion, it could be viewed as a step towards becoming more God or Christ like; individual pieces making up a whole, not far from the Body of Christ belief. As all-in-one, we would achieve universal understanding. There would be no pain, no suffering, nor ignorance or apathy. To draw another parallel, it would be quite similar to the Kingdom of God or Heaven. Being said, how do we move from 44 to 46? In more general terms, perhaps it is simpler to ask how we can move from where we are as imperfect humans to something beyond, something greater, the next step. Heres where the lyrics of Forty-Six 2 and elements of Jungian psychology come into play. At the heart of Maynards Forty-Six 2 lies the concept of Change is coming through my shadow. In Jungian psychology, the mind is broken down into many parts, including the anima/animus, the ego and the shadow. In males, the anima is a group of feminine traits suppressed deep into the subconscious. Similarly, the animus is the group of masculine traits suppressed in the subconscious of females. Though not consciously present, the anima and animus affect our behavior in powerful ways. Commonly, we seek out or project those traits out onto other of the opposite sex. This accounts for the feeling of falling in love at first sight. Though we may hardly know the person, our subconscious knows what they represent. As the opposite of the conscious self, the anima/animus can act as a guide to our own subconscious. They are often expressed as the guiding female (if youre male) or male (if youre female) figures in our dreams. In short, our unconscious egos (the anima/animus), are traits we desire in the opposite sex we ourselves suppress. Conversely, the ego is our conscious mind, our sense of personal self. This sense of personal identity is purchased, however, at the expense of certain tendencies that are rejected as not-self. These rejected traits come together as a kind of unconscious counter-ego, termed the shadow. Unexplainable feelings of annoyance, anxiousness or even anger can be a result of being in contact with someone who possesses elements of our repressed selves. In dreams, out shadow may take a physical form, often as an adversary of the same gender. Of all the elements that make up our psyche, the shadow has the potential to be both the most dangerous and the most critical to our personal developments. It represents everything we most fear and despise, but also represents everything we must master to move forward. Maynards suggestion for moving from our level to the next is by embracing the shadow. By taking in the previously rejected aspects of ourselves (the not-self) and learning to live with them (it), we take a great leap towards making ourselves whole again. Do what it takes to move through, to lie, cry, die, and kill but also to move, grow and to learn are fundamental. Deep concepts and New Age theories are nothing new for Maynard and Tool. With track titles like Stinkfist, Pushit, Third Eye, Schism and Parabola, Tool has never been, nor tried to be, a band easily understood from the surface. Their song lyrics, stage shows and even album artwork all reflect this. The cover to the album Aenima, from which the song Forty-Six 2 is taken, even follows some of the themes from the aforementioned song. At first glance all one notices is the burst of white light at the center. Closer inspection reveals a series of out of focus eyes ringing the light. In typical Tool fashion, theyve said exactly what theyve wanted to say without seeming to have said anything coherent at all. Think outside the box (literally). Sure, we can all see or understand out personal shadows to some degree (hence the shadowy, out of focus eyes). What lays beyond them, though, no one truly understands. Its a revelation so blindingly bright theres no seeing through it, nor any turning back. Those willing to think for themselves (a motto of soft for the band), will see the album cover, open the CD and learn things they may never had known before. With luck, theyll never be quite the same for it. Our shadows are elementary, almost primal. Only by looking within, to listen to my muscle memory and reflect on what makes us us can we find our way through to the other side. By picking scabs and metaphorically uncovering old wounds we can confront what we previously rejected and avoided. We can step into the shadow and find new understanding on the other side. Works Cited or Consulted Keenan, Maynard James. Forty-Six 2. Aenima. Rec. Sept. 1995. Volcano, 1996. Melchizedek, Drunvalo. Leading Edge Interviews Drunvalo Melchizedek. Interview with Val Valerian. Leading Edge Interview with Drunvalo Melchizedek. Ed. Joshua Shapiro. Dec. 1995. VJ Enterprises. 13 Sept. 2008 . Tool. Album Booklet. Aenima. Rec. Sept. 1995. Volcano, 1996. Appendix A Forty-Six 2 Written by Maynard James Keenan of Tool My shadows shedding skin and Ive been picking Scabs again. Im down Digging through My old muscles Looking for a clue. Ive been crawling on my belly Clearing out what couldve been. Ive been wallowing in my own confused And insecure delusions For a piece to cross me over Or a word to guide me in. I wanna feel the changes coming down. I wanna know what Ive been hiding in My shadow. Change is coming through my shadow. My shadows shedding skin Ive been picking My scabs again. Ive been crawling on my belly Clearing out what couldve been. Ive been wallowing in my own chaotic And insecure delusions. I wanna feel the change consume me, Feel the outside turning in. I wanna feel the metamorphosis and Cleansing Ive endured within My shadow Change is coming. Now is my time. Listen to my muscle memory. Contemplate what Ive been clinging to. Forty-six and two ahead of me. I choose to live and to Grow, take and give and to Move, learn and love and to Cry, kill and die and to Be paranoid and to Lie, hate and fear and to Do what it takes to move through. I choose to live and to Lie, kill and give and to Die, learn and love and to Do what it takes to step through. See my shadow changing, Stretching up and over me. Soften this old armor. Hoping I can clear the way By stepping through my shadow, Coming out the other side. Step into the shadow. Forty six and two are just ahead of me. Appendix B Aenima album cover

Friday, January 17, 2020

About role of the United Nations in the changing World Essay

Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations†. Those are words from Preamble of Charter of the United Nations. The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into existence on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter. The day is now celebrated each year around the world as United Nations Day. The purpose of the United Nations is to bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and the well-being of all people. It affords the opportunity for countries to balance global interdependence and national interests when addressing international problems. There are currently 191 Members of the United Nations. See more: Satirical essay about drugs They meet in the General Assembly, which is the closest thing to a world parliament. Each country, large or small, rich or poor, has a single vote; however, none of the decisions taken by the Assembly are binding. Nevertheless, the Assembly’s decisions become resolutions that carry the weight of world government opinion. The United Nations Headquarters is in New York City but the land and buildings are international territory. The United Nations has its own flag, its own post office and its own postage stamps. Six official languages are used at the United Nations – Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. The UN European Headquarters is in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. It has offices in Vienna, Austria and Economic Commissions in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia, Amman in Jordan, Bangkok in Thailand and Santiago in Chile. The senior officer of the United Nations Secretariat is the Secretary-General. The Aims of the United Nations: *To keep peace throughout the world. *To develop friendly relations between nations. *To work together to help people live better lives. * to eliminate poverty, disease and illiteracy in the world. * to stop environmental destruction. * to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms. *To be a centre for helping nations achieve these aims. The Principles of the United Nations: *All Member States have sovereign equality. *All Member States must obey the Charter. *Countries must try to settle their differences by peaceful means. *Countries must avoid using force or threatening to use force. *The UN may not interfere in the domestic affairs of any country. All countries should try to assist the United Nations. Now some information about the UN system: The basic structure of the United Nations is outlined in an organizational chart. What the structure does not show is that decision-making within the UN system is not as easy as in many other organizations. The UN is not an independent, homogeneous organization; it is made up of states, so actions by the UN depend on the will of Member States, to accept, fund or carry them out. Especially in matters of peace-keeping and international politics, it requires a complex, often slow, process of consensus-building that must take into account national sovereignty as well as global needs. The Specialized Agencies, while part of the UN system, are separate, autonomous intergovernmental organizations which work with the UN and with each other. The agencies carry out work relating to specific fields such as trade, communications, air and maritime transport, agriculture and development. Although they have more autonomy, their work within a country or between countries is always carried out in partnership with those countries. They also depend on funds from Member States to achieve their goals. Recently, international conferences organized by the UN have gained significance. UN conferences have been held since the 1960s, but with the Conference on Environment and Development, known as the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, they turned into real fora for deciding on national and international policy regarding issues that affect everyone such as the environment, human rights and economic development. Since the Earth Summit, UN conferences have turned into forums in which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can voice their concerns alongside those of governments. Such conferences focus world attention on these issues and place them squarely on the global agenda. Yet, once the international agreements produced by these conferences are signed, it is still up to each individual country to carry them out. With the moral weight of international conferences and the pressures of media and NGOs, Member States are more likely to endorse the agreements and put them into effect. I also would like to ad some basic information about structure and budget, to make brief of UN more visible. The six principal organs of the United Nations are the: General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat. The United Nations family, however, is much larger, encompassing 15 agencies and several programmes and bodies. When it comes to a budget, the budget for the two years 2000-2001 was $2,535 million. The main source of funds is the contributions of Member States, which are assessed on a scale approved by the General Assembly. The fundamental criterion on which the scale of assessments is based is the capacity of  countries to pay. This is determined by considering their relative shares of total gross national product, adjusted to take into account a number of factors, including their per capita incomes. In addition, countries are assessed for the costs of peacekeeping operations. What is the role of the UN nations in the changing World? I already gave some simply answers at the beginning of this assignment. I will try to answer this question in depth in the following part of my work. The UN has been effective, even indispensable, in post-conflict development in Mozambique, Guatemala, Afghanistan, the Balkans and elsewhere. It also has guided and monitored political change (democracy and governance) in Bosnia, Kosovo, East Timor and Georgia. The UN has been involved in the conflict in Abkhazia since Georgian forces stormed the Abkhaz parliament in Sukhumi in August 1992, triggering a war that remains unresolved today. In 1993, the UN and the CSCE (Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe) agreed that the international lead on the conflict in Abkhazia should be taken by the UN. In the same year the UN, faced with urgent requests from the government of Georgia to deploy a peacekeeping force to Abkhazia, decided to establish an observer mission for Georgia (UNOMIG) to monitor implementation of the July ceasefire agreement between the two sides which had been mediated and guaranteed by the Russian Federation. The decision to send an observer force rather than a fully fledged peacekeeping force reflected the desire of the Russian Federation to take the lead in the management of conflict in the ‘former Soviet space’, and the unwillingness of the other permanent members of the Security Council to challenge Russian prerogatives. There was also a general concern that the peacekeeping apparatus of the UN was overloaded, and disagreement among the parties as to what the mandate of a more substantial force would be. The UN Secretary-General also designated Swiss diplomat Eduard Brunner as Special Envoy for the conflict. He served until 1997 when Liviu Bota, a Romanian diplomat, was appointed Special Representative (SRSG) for the Abkhaz conflict. Both were responsible for the mediation of a process of negotiation leading to a political settlement of  the conflict. Bota has had a more or less permanent presence in the conflict zone, whereas Brunner was only delegated to visit intermittently. Russia’s special status in this process was recognized in its designation as ‘facilitator’ of the talks. In the early years of negotiation matters were not helped by the passive attitude taken by the Special Envoy to mediation of the conflict. The UN’s failure to take a more engaged approach was one factor among several contributing to the obvious lack of movement towards a political settlement in 1994-96. The fact that the more proactive approach adopted by Liviu Bota has also not produced a settlement would suggest, however, that the extent of UN activism is not the determining factor in conflict resolution. While the first personnel of UNOMIG were being deployed, the ceasefire collapsed and hostilities resumed. The UN Security Council condemned the renewal of conflict and associated displacement of population and demanded that the parties cease fighting. They also decided to extend the mandate of UNOMIG pending clarification of the situation. Traditionally, the UN has had a similar approach to its work since its conception in 1947. Gradually it became more and more involved; adding different organelles, agencies, and addressing more issues that weren’t necessarily new as it grew in size and scope. The International Court of Justice, the Economic and Social Council, and agencies like the International Maritime Organization were created to solve problems in these areas. It grew out of the General Assembly and the Security Council; to an organization with thousands of employees worldwide doing hundreds of completely different things. To put it simply, and to generalize, it has gotten bigger, and more involved. The Secretary General NOW has the ability to change the way a leader runs his country, make two warring countries sign a peace treaty, and even route money through areas in the world that would have never gotten any before. The Secretary has assumed power or the power of influence, he or she does not have any written or given power, Still however, this clearly shows how much more the UN has gotten involved and grown, even more like the feared â€Å"world government† that it vows to never become. It is a little misleading to speak of the role of the UN. The UN is nearly  powerless as an abstract entity or even as a representative of the world’s nations. It can act, instead, only insofar as it is given authorization by the great powers, which means primarily the United States. The UN has no standing peacekeeping force and thus is dependent on finding countries willing to contribute troops for any particular mission. The organization suffers as well from an extreme shortage of funds because of the continual U.S. refusal to pay its dues. Any peacekeepers sent to East Timor will probably not be a UN force because the U.S. Congress has required that there be a 15-day delay before the U.S. government can approve any UN peacekeeping operation and has forbidden Washington from paying its authorized share of the costs of any such operation. U.S. influence is greatest in the Security Council, but some organs of the UN, such as the General Assembly or bodies dealing with economic and social issues have had a Third World majority ever since the era of decolonization. Accordingly, U.S. policy has been to undermine and marginalize the UN. The United Nations should have an important role in world affairs, but U.S. policy and the policies of other leading states, severely limit the international organization. From the point of view of U.S. policymakers, however, there is one crucial role played by the UN: it serves as a convenient scapegoat when something goes wrong. For example, the current catastrophe in East Timor is directly attributable to the refusal of the United States and other Western powers to deter the atrocities there over a period of a quarter century, yet the UN will probably take the blame. So as we can see, we can look for the subject of my assignment from the different point of view. Another UN’s role: The Asian crisis, has become a global crisis, was by no means a purely financial matter. It had disastrous consequences for millions of people in their everyday lives. Moreover, it was the poor who are hardest hit. In Indonesia, almost 15,000 workers lost their jobs in 1998. And poverty came with its usual sorry retinue: hunger, social unrest, violence, abuse of human rights. The least developed countries, the ones least able to influence world priorities and policies, were penalized. So the human dimension was at the heart of the response (including debt relief)to this  first major crisis of globalization. Of course, the role of the seven major industrial powers, and of the world’s finance ministers and central bankers, remained crucial. But they could not undertake this task alone. All parts of the international system came together. President Clinton has suggested wide-ranging discussions on the new world â€Å"financial architecture.† Some would say that this was none of the U.N.’s business. There are other international bodies, more specialized and perhaps more competent to deal with economic problems: the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, the Bank for International Settlements. But the U.N. is the one truly global institution we all belong to. It must have a seat at the table. Economic and financial strategies will succeed only if they are applied within a clear political framework. That framework will command much wider support if, through the U.N., all affected countries have played a part in working it out. Over the long term, globalization will be positive. It draws us closer together and enables us to produce more efficiently, to control our environment, to improve our quality of life. But such benefits are not felt equally by all. For many people, â€Å"long term† is too far off to be meaningful. Millions on this planet still live in isolation, on the margins of the world economy. Millions more are experiencing globalization not as a great new opportunity but as a profoundly disruptive force that attacks both their material living standards and their culture. Some of those who had benefited most from open markets and capital flows were feeling the greatest pain. The temptation to retreat into nationalism or populism is strong. But, fortunately, in most developing countries, those false solutions are being rejected. Each country’s crisis has its own local features and causes. Each country has to address its own specific problems and shortcomings. But many countries need help, for these are not just financial or macro-economic problems. They have grave social and political consequences, and some of their causes are to be found in political and social systems. The U.N. has a responsibility, as the universal institution, to insist on the need for worldwide solutions based on rules that are fair to all. It is the UN job to ensure that nations do not react to crisis by turning their backs on universal values. In such crises, the UN must come together to find solutions based on the founding  principles which all their member states have in common: those of the U.N. Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In particular, the UN has a special responsibility to speak up for the victims or potential victims. The UN cannot forget the countries in Africa and elsewhere whose debt burdens the crisis has made even more unsustainable. Debt relief is often resisted on grounds of â€Å"moral hazard,† that it rewards the reckless and penalizes the prudent. But were not the lenders often just as reckless and irresponsible as the borrowers? Can it really be moral for them to insist on full interest and full repayment if the result is that children not yet born when the debts were contracted are denied even a subsistence diet or an elementary education? Many nations feel their interests are ignored or neglected in specialized economic bodies, where the strongest voices, for quite understandable reasons, tend to be those of countries which have already achieved economic success. But the U.N. provides a forum for informed debate among all those affected by the crisis. It has to represent all stakeholders in the global economy. The U.N. must play its part in the search for solutions that preserve the benefits of globalization while protecting those who have suffered or who have been left out. UN has kept women’s issues and interests on the agenda of change when they risked being set aside for a â€Å"later† that would never come in Afghanistan, Kosovo and East Timor. It has protected children in conflict and in post-conflict stress. The UN is bringing justice post-conflict to the repressed through ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia), ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda), and the nascent Sierra Leone court. In each case, the role and the centrality of the UN have been different. The United Nations is an organization that has always been based on respect for nation’s sovereignties, peace, and judicial cooperation regarding topics which are salient to the current time period. As the entire world moves further into the â€Å"technological age†, and with the turn of the century coming (which is really only symbolic of a new era), new issues are bound to develop. The world will gradually change, and the UN ne eds to address these needs by evaluating its current state along with what it can do to change for the better. The increasingly global economy, the European Community, and the development of the sagging Asian market (with  the rest of the world in a recession also) show action needs to be taken economically. Hostility remains in the Middle East, human rights are being violated every day around the globe, and people everywhere are disgruntled with their current governmental situation. How will the UN curb nuclear terrorism, help the homeless and uneducated, and still maintain and outside role in political matters? Or should they maintain an outside role? These are merely a few of the hundreds of issues addressing the world today, and the UN must prepare for the coming decade with open minded foresight. As Secretary General Kofi A. Annan said, every conflict is different, every post-conflict is different, and each model of intervention by the international community is different. In Iraq, we have an immediate post-conflict humanitarian and reconstruction challenge in front of us. It is in eve ryone’s interests, especially in the Iraqi people’s interest, to ensure that Iraq becomes an economically functional, politically stable and self-governing state that is respectful of the rule of law, of democratic principles and of international norms. The coalition nations currently controlling Iraqi territory have distinct responsibilities as occupying powers to maintain public order and safety, to protect civilians and to provide essential services. The wider international community, especially the United Nations, also have indispensable roles to play. While systems are in place for humanitarian assistance, a framework is needed to facilitate greater engagement and support in the stabilization and reconstruction of Iraq. The United Nations has extensive expertise that can and should be brought to bear. The UN and its agencies have been heavily involved in Iraq since the first Gulf War, and have an in-depth understanding of the circumstances, and the challenges. The UN is fully engaged through its agencies and has resources on the ground in Iraq, providing much-needed assistance to the Iraqi people. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), The United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the WFP (World Food Programme)- they all know Iraq. Countries need to build on the strength of the engagement of these and other UN agencies in Iraq, and determine how best they can make further use of this experience and expertise. In Iraq, as in all post-conflict situations, common over-arching goals must be to meet the needs of the people, and to support them in their course towards stability, recovery and reconstruction. After Kosovo, many thought NATO would become let say â€Å"Globocop† that the G-8 would supplant the Security Council, that the UN would be sidelined. But, in fact, the UN picked up the pieces in Kosovo, mandated the intervention in East Timor and has helped Afghanistan put itself back together. What about issues that should to be addressed in a Resolution? As for what should be addressed, there almost are more topics than one is able to think about. Should there be more staff running relief efforts in Zaire? Is the International Court of Justice really necessary, or is it wasting money and time that could be spent on other things. Analyzing this, you could say that since nations only sue each other, and no real action is taken, and the courts have no real power to enforce anything, what is the use? Possibly the funding used for this could go towards building schools in Africa. This may seem fairly ludicrous, but one needs to have the foresight to see these things, and there i s only a certain amount of money around for things like this. Possibly the UN relief troops should be allowed to use loaded weapons and fire at hostile parties, for their own safety and to help curb violence more. Maybe the Secretary General should be stripped of all his power, and put all diplomacy matters in the hands of the General Assembly or Security Council. The Secretary could have increased power that would force nations to comply with his decisions. A UN that is much like a world government could possibly work as long as there was representatives from every nation. Because the world is more complex, if the UN was simplified it might make things smoother. Instead of having an agency for every little issue, such as the ACC Sub-Committee on Nutrition, or the UN office for Outer Space affairs. Are these REALLY necessary? They may be, but it is the decision of the delegates. The UN’s image with â€Å"Security Council† and a Court System might look bad to some conservative minded citizens of a nation. Economically, are the proper funds being allocated to areas and agencies in need? Should a worldwide mandatory educational requirement be put into effect? What exactly is the most pressing area right now that needs the fiscal help the UN can offer? Again, in the past 50 years help has been going to the same places, while the Secretariat grew larger and larger, and the entire UN gradually began becoming a complex political bureaucracy, and began to focus less on its original mission as stated in the charter, to  promote peaceful relations between the nations of the world. This doesn’t seem to be working anymore, possibly because the current UN is obsolete. In summation, United Nations reform is a daunting task. As a member of UN, Poland should remember to use foresight, think of what kind of world we will live in next century, what new things will happen, and how the UN should evolve to meet these needs with vigor. The UN is still only an organization, not a government, and it is based itself on precedent. That is, actions of the past determine future decisions. If precedent is broken, we should remember what has been built for all of us for the past 51 years. Bibliography: United Nations: 50 Years of Peace and War, University of California Press, John Taylor, Phd. 1998 United Nations Published Charter The History of The United Nations, Paladin Press, Jonathon Kingsley. 1994